Prototypical representation of the cerebral nervous tissue. This sketch displays the typical interaction between three prominent cerebral nervous tissue cell types: the neurons, the oligodendrocytes and the astrocytes. Note that for clarity purposes, the different elements displayed in this figure are not to scale. A population of neurons conveys and processes electrochemical information inside a neuronal network. To achieve such a task, the geometry of a neuron is very unusual when compared to other animal cells. The neuron’s body, the soma, has two types of elongations, one axon and several dendrites that link it to other neurons through equally unusual sophisticated structures called synapses. A close-up view of a synapse can be seen inside a purple circle on the top of the present schema. Electric information diffuses unidirectionally inside the neuronal net. When an electric potential approaches the end of the axon of a neuron, it takes a chemical form to travel the synapse and reach the dendrite of the next neuron. Neurotransmitters contained in vesicles of the presynaptic element are released from the presynaptic element and sent to the synaptic cleft. From there, they can bind with receptors dispatched on the membrane of the postsynaptic element. A second population of cells, the glial cells, including the oligodendrocytes and the astrocytes, supports the neurons in their mission. The oligodendrocytes, with their wrapping processes, cover axons with an insulating myelin sheath that ensures a fast and efficient propagation of electric signals. The remaining space is filled with the most abundant type of glial cells present in the nervous tissue: the astrocytes. For many reasons, they can be considered the caretakers of the cerebral nervous tissue. The most important reason is that astrocytes keep neurons alive by feeding them the nutrients uptaken from capillaries through their vascular end-feet.